The greatness of man is not even clear to them. God - the Great Mind created Man and gave no one more than him I would be grateful for repost shamanahamkara shaman shamanism healer healers shamanentradition shamantraditions schamanismus heiler shamantraditionen shamanisme shamanichealing shamanic shamans shamanicjourney shamansofinstagram shamanicart shamanes healing healingenergy healingjourney healingvibrations healings healingnaturally spiritualhealer healersofinstagram energyhealer naturalhealer - 2 minutes ago.
Death can dance Series since By aprillouiseturnerart art contemporaryart santamuerte peace shamans painter freeyourself benefit shamanism modernart - 3 minutes ago. You are the director of your own healing journey so can develop your practises in whatever way works best for you. I also recapitulate during the day at random times too. Here are the basic steps: Choose a memory — I recommend starting with something easy but that still raises an unpleasant emotion. In your mind, go back to that place in time.
Feel your way through the memory without pushing anything away. Allow the feelings to flow through even if they are unpleasant. When you are fully in your memory, begin to purposefully breath out anything you have taken on that does not belong with you. Breath in anything you lost at that moment. You may not know what you took on or what you lost but have the clear intention and it will happen naturally. Do this for as long as you can — as you get better at the practise your mind will wander onto other thoughts naturally when you are complete. You may have to visit memories more than once to fully recapitulate the moment.
A good practice is recapitulating everyday annoyances at the end of the day, before you sleep. This allows you to take back any power lost in daily events and frees you from connections with interpersonal drama. Build up slowly to major life events that you still have unpleasant emotional reactions to. This is deep work — so take your time and be gentle with yourself. Although it might! I have used this process for several years, and it is part of my daily practice. Sri Rama reminds that the tears from the eyes of falsely convicted individual destroy the king.
He recognized the human fragilities of the mind and the body.
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An individual may be well intentioned but, unfortunately, mistakes or errors sometimes may happen. It is the duty of the ruler to rectify the mistakes immediately. Hopefully no longterm damage results from the mistakes or errors. However, as kings and rulers often have extraordinary powers, it is their duty to ensure that false serious charges never occur.
Innocent individuals would not be exposed to punishment and suffering in a Ramarajya based justice system. The information indicated here is an overview of the material contained in the seventy six verses. What is astonishing, but not surprising, is that the various requirements and qualifications indicated by Sri Rama for the rulers and others are equally valid even today. The information in Ramayana is millennium years old and yet its application is forever. Ramayana is an Eternal Scripture and guide for rulers and people. It clearly conveys that an individual can rise to divine levels as in the case of our hero Sri Rama.
It also emphasizes that a bad individual will cause suffering to the good people but ultimately will pay the price as in the case of Rakshasa Ravana. Impracticable Combinations Our ancient astrological treatises give us a plethora of combinations of planets that can make or mar the characteristics of a person.
In analyzing any chart these combinations can guide the astrologer to assess the quality of the horoscope, most precisely, and help him to judge the horoscope effectively. However, it must be noted that not all such combinations found in our ancient treatises can be taken up for their face value because some of them can turn to be merely impossible or impracticable ones.
The scholars have taken note of all these anomalies earlier and have discussed them threadbare. The present effort of this scribe is just to alert the students of astrology that all such combinations given in various texts of yore cannot be taken for granted outright. However, it must be noted that this is in no way meant to find fault with those treatises that have given such impossible combinations.
The students, in such rare cases, must take them seriously to find whether such combinations are possible, feasible or at least practicable. If such strange combinations found in texts are found not reasonable, for our modem use, the only way out would be that they need not be given any weight, in the assessments. One need not sit on any judgment why such inconsistencies have crept into these texts.
This can save a lot of trouble for the budding astrologers. This present venture is only to whip-up support to those students, who are interested to study the subject seriously. The quarrels between husbands and wives are nothing new and they ought to have exited perhaps from the very ancient days. But it is strange that they have not damaged the institution of marriage due to many of the social and religious embargoes.
However, one can see that such instances quite common, now-a-days with many girls going back to their home discarding their husband or seek a divorce. Only then, the astrologer who had matched the cases becomes the whipping-boy. It is interesting to note that Phaladeepika gives a combination to identify such girls who are prone to quarrelling with their husbands and make the marriage a hell or wreak it. It says that if the lords of Lagna and seventh in a girl's horoscope are placed in shastashtaka positions, i. One must not come to any hasty conclusions in such cases where the lords of the Lagna and the seventh are placed in positions in any girl's horoscope.
It may be true that the combination could be ominous. Including the Moon, there are some fast moving planets like Mercury and Venus who come round the zodiac once in a month or at least in few months. Let us take the case of Kataka and Makara lagnas.
In the first case where the lagna is Kataka the lords of the lagna and the 7th are the Moon and Saturn. In the case of Makara lagna they will be Saturn and Moon respectively. Wherever Saturn could be, is it not a fact that the Moon would occupy the position, at least once a month from Saturn? Like this, Mercury, Venus and even the Sun can take up such positions frequently. Net result would be that such quarrelling girls would constitute the bulk of female population and en-masse we cannot brand them as cantankerous.
In short it is that such combinations need not be taken up so seriously or literally to make one apprehensive of a possible horror. Royal Births Again, in Phaladeepika we find a combination suggesting a royal birth, if Venus is in the ascendant and in Aswini Nakshatra and further aspected by all the other planets.
Evidently, this cannot happen, as at least Mercury and the Sun will have to opt out, by all means. This is because Mercury and the Sun can aspect the planet only from the 7th from it and in no way either of them can be so far away from Venus. A combination when the Sun and the Moon are in their atyuccha or deep exaltation position is capable of ushering in a great royal personage according to Maharshi Gargi.
Can such a situation arise? It will be a good exercise for the students to work out and find whether when the Sun is in 10 Mesha, the Moon could occupy the Bhavatbhava Principle While attempting to assess the quality of any bhava it is of utmost necessity to look into many of the factors like its strength, the aspects or associations of planets it gets, the quality, position and strength of the bhaavaadhipa and scores of other factors. Going a step further, the results of any bhava can be enlarged by taking it as the Lagna, from where its twelve bhavas could be analyses and assessed.
For example the progeny of brother can be examined from the 7th, as it is the 5th from the 3rd. Bhavatbhava is a special method of assessing the qualities of any particular bhava, not only from the concerned bhava but also from the house, counted as much, from the concerned bhava, as the latter is from Lagna.
Under this scheme, the matters concerning father can be measured from the 5th bhava also because it is the 9th from the 9th. The logic is that while the 9th bhava can portray matters connected with the father of the native, the 9th from that bhava can elucidate it further. Likewise the traits of the 2nd house can be considered from the 3rd house also as it is the 2nd from the second house.
Likewise, 3rd can be gauged from the 5th which is the 3rd to the 3rd; the 4th from the 7th which is the 4th from the 4th and so on. This is the Bhavatbhava principle. Whenever the effects of any bhava are to be determined, that bhava should be considered as the Lagna. The effects of the twelve houses reckoned there-from should then be examined and results arrived at. There is another rule that prescribes the bhava assessments from the position of the respective kanakas. For example the progeny could be examined not only from the 5th but also from the 5th house from where Jupiter, the Putrakaraka is posited, in the horoscope.
The Bhavatbhava principle enlarges the scope for assessments of various bhavas, making it more incisive and insightful. Ramayana, Guide to Duties of Rulers continued from 14 The objective of the discussion is to help each other in. Everlasting Guide We have only scratched at the surface of Ramayana. The remarkable thing is that Sri Rama has provided the harma.
Thousands and essential ingredients for rule of Dharma. One can enjoy the story of Sri Rama by reading Ramayana. But reading it many times opens the door to go beyond the printed word and enables one to grasp and understand the vast knowledge and wisdom contained :ontained in it. Devotion provides the intuition to visualize the events as if they are happening in front of our eyes.
Byy the Grace of Lord Sri Rama, the wisdom and knowledge contained in it is easily available for anyone to imbibe, apply and use it. We are plain and simple mortals in this vast universe, who are trying to understand the message that Sage Valmiki has provided through the pages of Ramayana. At any time during the discussion, we do not have to always agree on the various views, opinions or comments. The strength of the discussion lies in the fact that they provide us an opportunity to critically and objectively evaluate the events and incidents contained in the story and then come to our own conclusions.
It is important to remember that any conclusions arrived at must be based on a dignified approach and devotion to Sri Rama. William R. Bill has maintained an active Vedic astrology practice since with thousands of clients around the world. Bill lives in Southern California and can be reached at www. Persons with strong and favorable connections to the 12th house, and a well placed Jupiter, often exhibit spiritual tendencies and have a releasing disposition However, the examination of the charts of public gurus in the last couple of decades reveals another set of criteria for spiritual leaders, especially those who have worked in the West.
It is that of Scorpio, its ruler Mars and the 8th house This article will examine those indications of the 8th house, Mars, and Scorpio and how they apply to the charts of several modern Gurus. The favorable qualities of these 8th place indicators will be reviewed to help us understand how the 8th house and its characteristics could lead a person to assume the role of a guru or spiritual leader of some fashion in these active, modern times.
Traditional 8th House Indications As is the case in many classic texts, Laghu Parashari, for example, indicates that the ruler of the 8th house due to its placement of 12th from the 9th does not produce good results. Traditional expositions of the 8th house tend to focus on end-of-life matters, sexual and eliminative functions, legacies, and the unknown.
Parashara indicates the concerns of the 8th house as indicative of "longevity, wealth of the dead, and things that have happened and are to happen in the past and future births. Rama Dayalu's Sanketa Nidhi, calls the 8th , the house of mysteries. Sanketa Nidhi also indicates the 8th house as representing "fear from enemies, imprisonment, and acting in an unbecoming manner.
The 8th house is concerned with matters related to "crossing over" or death, perhaps even symbolic death and rebirth. Mantreshwara's Phaladeepika while mirroring Parashara's emphasis on longevity and death, expands 8th house descriptions to include impediments due to impurity, embarrassments, chronic indebtedness, and all around sorrow. Mantreshwara also provides the rule that "if the lord of the house under examination is in the 6th, 8th, or 12th from the Lagna, that house is destroyed. The same will be the results if that house is occupied by the Lords of the 6th, 8th, or 12th.
As we will see in the next section of this article, a benefic aspect on the 8th house can mitigate some of the negative energy and can promote the positive end of the scale. In the case of the dusthanas, including the 8th, if the house concerned is aspected by a benefic, it will in fact flourish. As such, Mantreshwara is making us aware that the 8th house can also indicate the opportunity for an improvement of a life condition. If one is beset with obstacles vighna , then it would be the recognition of obstacles, or creating more discernment, that would allow an individual to navigate around these barriers, setbacks, or delays or transcend them and move forward.
If a person had many impurities asuchi that diminished their life force, then the removal of those afflictions could lead to a healing transformation and more vitality life. It could create a disposition for mastering the transcendental knowledge. The 8th, in this regard could represent the discernment and skill to lead others out of darkness and into the higher insights of consciousness and good health.
This is what gurus do. They remove doubt and darkness. They are the captains of consciousness that guide their followers "across the. Bhatt Narayana's Chamatkar Chintamani tells us that the 8th house can indicate a person with "imposing personahty, charitable, jovial, and learned. Suryanarain Rao, Dr. Raman's grandfather, in his Astrological Primer, offers another ray of hope from the 8th house by calling it a place of "final emancipation," rather than strictly a position for judging end of physical life or becoming fatalistic about dealing with life's limitations.
Rama Dayalu's Sanketa Nidhi, lists the 8th house as a place of both happiness and of misery, as well as a place where diseases originate, opening up the consideration for diagnoses and cure. Dayalu also tells us that a benefic 8th house can "bestow wealth upon the native. Raman , indicates that a benefic in the 8th can increase health and longevity, make a person courageous, and give them the capacity to acquire new houses and spiritual residences. Venkatesh Sharma's Sarvartha Chintamani indicates that "if there is influence of benefic planets on the 8th house, there is no defeat for the native.
As is the focus of this article, the 8th house can be indicative of those advanced characteristics. These can be seen in the charts of dynamic gurus who teach us to transcend life's challenges and take action towards inner and outer happiness. The genesis of 8 house gurus can be seen more fully in the descriptions of Scorpio, as 8th sign, and its ruler Mars. Many of these astrological indications are generally applicable to the favorable 8th chart position.
Indications of Scorpio: Transformation and Transcendence Dr. Raman in Hindu Predictive Astrology, tells us that Scorpios are sensual beings yet will philosophize on the merits of controlling the senses. They have a philosophic disposition, like excitement, are friendly and invite the goodwill of people around the world. Their international capacity is expanded by their tendency not to be limited by conventions and customs. He has unusual activity, vitahty, and recuperative power. He has unusual interest in all psychic subjects and mysteries of nature, and makes an excellent research worker on original and novel lines.
His ability for occultism is immense. He breaks down theories which are either antiquated or irrational, though he has respect for time honored customs. Majumder, in his book, Hindu Science of the Future, lists some of the traits of Scorpio as, "does not care for other's criticism and faces everything stubbornly and challenges its critics. Anything that causes obstruction his tendency is to fight; Such descriptions bring to mind the reclusive nature of a spiritual seeker and the traditional factors of seeking caves and remote places in which to nurture spiritual growth in infinite silence.
Example Charts from Famous World Gurus. The following "Gurus" led or are leading large organizations around the world both in the West and the East. You will notice in examining their charts that the 8th sign of Scorpio, the 8th house from the Lagna, Sun, or Moon, and the planet Mars plays a significant role. This article is meant to stimulate further research into those planetary indicators that identify a person who has the energy, capacity, and general wisdom to lead a large group of people to a state of high evolution, health, and happiness.
As we know, while the indicators for spiritual greatness are present in these example charts, the individuals noted have various spans of time and depth of. They are in a sense controllers of consciousness, researching the ancient shastras East and West , to help the masses transcend the limits of mundane life. Due to constraints of space in this article, biographies were not providedhoping these persons were at least famous enough to spark your memory about their place in the world.
If you would like to see a biography of each individual, you can search for them on the internet, by name or in places like Wikipedia. Madhavan did his M. Mathematics and took his doctorate in Mathematics from the University of Kerala. He has published several research papers in journals of international repute in mathematics, Indian astronomy, astrology etc. He also worked abroad for about four years. He has attended several national and international conferences and guided scores of M. Phil, and PhD students. He studied Sanskrit and jyotishain the traditional way.
He is now translating the commentary Apurvarthapradarshika of his father, Sri A. Srinivasaraghava lyengar on Brihat Jataka into English. Through his organization Mihira Astrological Center, he works for the promotion of astrology.
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Fearing that it would be lost in Kaliyuga the Sun took the incarnation in the world as Varahamihira and expounded the three branches in a short form. This is what people with knowledge of salvation say. Obeisance to that Sun". This statement is fully justified by the fact that Varahamihira wrote monumental works on all the three branches - Siddhanta, Hora and Samhita. In Siddhanta he wrote Pancha Siddhantika. Brihat Samhita is encyclpaedic in range and covers the whole gamut of celestial and terrestrial phenomena.
It deals with the transits of planets, comets, architecture, weather forecast, iconography, omens, qualities of men and women and a wide variety of topics. He also wrote a work called Samasa Samhita known only through quotations. Vatakanika is a work dealing with omens. But it exists only in a fragmentary form.
On travels or what may be called military astrology he wrote Brihadyatra, Svalpayatra and Yogayatra. According to tradition the authorship of more than thirty works is attributed to him, but the authenticity is not certain. Apart from the global sweep of learning he was a master of Sanskrit prosody as is evidenced from his metrical extravaganza in Brihat Samhita, while describing transits of planets. In fact no other astrologer of India possessed his versatility. Regarding his period several opinions prevail. Amaraja mentions in his commentary on Brahmasphuta Siddhanta that he died in Saka which corresponds to A.
He introduces himself thus:. His father was Aditya dasa who gave him knowledge. He was endowed with a boon from the Sun and he wrote the beautiful Horasastra after going through the works of the sages. The author has culled out much information from this literature from hoary past and presented in an acceptable fashion. The ancient sastras are like gems. In this way the sastras are old, they are also scattered. The commentator who was holding a high position in Kerala Educational Service had the advantages of modern and ancient education. He had a Master's degree in Mathematics and standard traditional education in Sanskrit in which he had learned several sastras.
He has written poems in Sanskrit, and published several articles on Mathematics, philosophy etc.
With the erudition of an encyclopaedic nature he laid his hand on Brihat Jataka and the product is really astounding. First of all, what Varahamihira says is important:. In Brihat Jataka he has clearly followed this principle. The works written by the eighteen sages were practically lost by the efflux of time. Varahamihira collected the available materials and restored them in the best possible way.
In writing Brihat Jataka he has condensed the materials covering several aspects of astrology by his ingenious methods of suggestion. Because of the greatness of the work, commentaries giving the real import of the text were written by scholars. According to tradition the great Adi Sankara wrote a commentary named Jayamangala on the text. But it is not available or it may be only a story concocted often about great people.
Chronologically Bhattotpala's commentary comes first. It was completed in the Saka year which corresponds to A. It clears many ambiguities in the texts and abounds in profuse quotations. These are very useful for historical research. But it does not delve into the inner meanings of the text. Dasadhyayi consisting of commentary for the first ten chapters was written by Govinda Somayajin also called Thalakkulathur Bhattatiri makes an attempt to probe into the inner meanings of the text. This was probably written in 13th century A. Vivarana of Rudravariar, later commentator covers the entire text and explains some hidden meanings.
Horabhiprayanirnayaof Paramesvara discusses some points overlooked by earlier commentaries. This can be construed thus: For the sake of those who are frustrated in the attempt to cross the ocean of the science of Hora, after having come across many of works of authors well known intellect endowed with knowledge of grammar and logic I am writing this book which is concise, but possessing several meanings and variegated metres.
He uses an imagery here. He refers to it as sastra-plava and science-boat. The adjectives are meaningfully couched. Thus author of Apurvarthapradarsika has shown that this is fully justified. He uses mainly the following devices for interpretation. Using grammatical devices in interpreting the text in different ways.
Using Katapayadi System of numerals and interpreting in different ways. The name of the metre which suggests a new meaning. This has been done for every stanza and this is unique and this is unique feature of the commentary. We shall give some examples for each. We shall consider this:. Apurvarttapradarsika of Sri A. Srinivasaraghava lyengar - , by my revered father and guru, excels all the earlier commentaries by the exhaustive explanations on the verses in a very novel way.
It is a breakthrough in the interpretations of Varahamihira's text. The commentator brings out the details of various Vargas, supposed to be bypassed by Varahamihira. Apparently Varahamihira describes only the six Vargas, whereas the commentator establishes by skill that all the sixteen Vargas and given by him. Bhavanasamamsaka is interpreted thus. Bham means rasi vana means water and hence four and thus caturthamsa or division with four equal parts is given. Sva means one, and graha means four. By counting four successively we get the leads of quadrants, from the rasi concerned for the caturtamsas.
Also bhavanam suggests four and the sages, Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatana and Sanathkumara who are four years old are referred to. Use of Katapayadi numerals we observe that Varahamihira was aware of this. A commentator on Aryabhama also says that Aryabhama was aware of this, though he used Vargaksara System. It is generally believed that Varahamihira bypassed Ududasa. But the commentator establishes that Varahamihira suggested it. He uses the synonyms of the various planets and achieves this.
Similarly the term S'as'abh0t means the Moon and also a bearer of S'as'a or here. In this way the U udas'a year for all planets are given. The author also skilfully derives Kalachakra Dasa from B. The use of metres is the most important device. Sardulavikridita metre has caesura at 12 and 7 and thus there is reference to 12 rasis and 7 planets is given. Thus the rule can be extend or generalized depending on the context. The metre pushpitagra suggests a Raja yoga. We shall add one illustration. Other planets can be considered similarly. This is simple. But, inner meanings can be derived.
The author employs the metre called Kusumavichitra which suggests a bee searching for new and new flowers. The bee with six legs suggests six. Thus six kinds of strength, six Vargas are referred to in the first instance. The metre can also be viewed as matrasomaka which is defined as. Matrasomaka consists of 16 syllabic instances in every quarter with the ninth syllabic instant being short. Thus the sixteen Vargas have to be looked into the navamsa has the special status. Also every quarter has 12 syllables and the modification of the results with the help of 12 rasis and 12bhavas is also included.
Since methods of explanation are often recondite, very difficult kinds of interpretations are not included in the article. The commentator's discussion of Manduka gati, Mrkata gati and Simhavalokana with the help of metres is ingenious, but not discussed here because of the intricacies of prosody involved.
The first part consisting of 10 chapters of the work Apurvarthapradarsika was published by Adyar Library, Madras in I hope to publish the second part with my English translation and notes in The description of the eminent historian professor K. V Rangaswamy lyengar as the "best commentary yet written on the best known work on Jyotica by the greatest daivajna in history" is fully justified.
The Calendar has become an integral part of our life and due to the electronic revolution it is available in many forms such as wrist watches, cell phones, computers etc. Today Gregorian calendar is internationally accepted civil calendar and is in use across the globe. Though there are many advantages with the other calendars which are traditionally in use in India such as Hindu Solar Calendar, Islamic Calendars etc.
This article focuses on providing the astronomical significance of each of these calendars and explains their advantages and drawbacks. The calendars are devised based on the movements of Sun and Moon and are classified as Solar, Lunar and Lunisolar calendars. The Solar calendar considers only Sun and ignores the Moon. The lunar Calendar considers only Moon and ignores the Sun. The Lunisolar Calendar considers both Sun and Moon. Each of the 3 calendars has its own way of organizing the units of time such as year, month and day which is explained in detail in the remaining sections of the article.
Solar Calendar It is defined based on Sun and ignores the Moon. According to this calendar the solar year is defined to be the time taken by Sun to complete one revolution along the ecliptic starting from one reference point to reach the same reference point though it is the earth which revolves around the Sun, for all practical purposes it is fine to consider the other way.
If the reference point is considered to be vernal equinox it is known as tropical year also known as sayana year and the calendar as tropical calendar. If the reference point is considered to be a fixed star or a fixed point in ecliptic then it is known as sidereal year also known as nirayana year and the calendar as sidereal calendar. Venkata Giri Kumar works as a software professional in Bangalore since after completing M. E atREC Trichy. He says the initial astrological foundation have been the books of DR. His serious interests are studying and analyzing the astronomical significance of the various events in day to day life.
Tropical Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the best example of the tropical calendar and it uses the vernal equinox as the reference point. We are familiar with this calendar as we use it extensively in our day to day life but the significance of the calendar lies with the alignment of the calendar with the equinoxes and solstices. This has 12 months in a year and the number of days in a year varies between and days depending on whether it is a leap year or not. The additional day in the leap year is added to the month of February which makes it 29 days from 28 days and as a result the leap year consists of days and the non leap year has days.
The leap year is defined to be the year which is divisible by 4 and not by Also the year which is divisible by is considered as leap year. As a result we have the following. The years , , All the other years which are divisible by 4 such as , The leap years are introduced to synchronize the calendars with the dates of equinoxes and solstices which otherwise drift backwards due to precession of equinox.
As a result Gregorian calendar is highly synchronized to equinoxes and solstices. Also it is the only calendar which preserves the knowledge of equinoxes and solstices. The leap year calculations used by Gregorian calendar are explained in detail in the article "Precession of Uttarayana" December issue of The Astrological eMagazine. The equinoxes and solstices fall in the exact dates every year as shown below March 21 June This is also known as arithmetic calendar as it uses simple arithmetic formulas to decide the number of days in a year and does not depend on the astronomical data of the planets.
The years are named as numbers such as , etc. The length of the day is fixed to 24 hours and the start of the day is fixed to 12 o'clock in the midnight. As a result it can be used across globe in all the time zones without any modifications. This is the biggest advantage with this calendar when compared with other calendars which use astronomical events such as sunrise to determine the start and length of the day. The drawback with this calendar is that it does not provide the information regarding the phases of the Moon which in India is considered as the vital information for many of the rituals and ceremonies.
Though it is not a serious drawback but worth noting it down when it gets analyzed with other calendars. Sidereal Calendar The sidereal calendar also known as Hindu solar calendar is followed by some states in India especially Tamilnadu, Kerala and West Bengal. The sidereal calendar is best understood with sidereal zodiac constituting 12 rasis Aries to Pisces. The solar year in sidereal calendar is defined as time taken by Sun to complete one revolution starting from a fixed point on the ecliptic and reaching to the same point on the ecliptic.
Typically first point of Aries, which was coinciding with the tropical vernal equinox some time back, is considered as the starting of the sidereal year. The solar year consists of 12 solar months and the solar month is defined as the time taken by Sun to traverse from the starting of one rasi to the starting of next rasi. In other words the Sun entering into a rasi is termed as sankramana and the time between two successive sankramanas is considered as one month.
The number of days in a month varies from 29 to 32 days as Sun's motion is not uniform across rasis. The time between sunrise to next sunrise is termed as a solar day. As sunrise does not happen at the same time on every day, the length of the day is not equal across days. The advantage is that the knowledge of lunar phases is integrated into the solar calendar.
As sidereal zodiac is considered for measuring the length of the solar year, it is not necessary to add the days as it is done in tropical calendar. The drawback of this calendar is that it does not preserve the knowledge of equinox and solstice points unlike tropical calendar. It needs to be obtained using either tropical calendar or tropical zodiac.
It has some practical limitations using across different time zones. The reason being the start of the day is measured with the sunrise and it varies across time zones. It is extremely difficult to synchronize the day and time with such variations in sunrise timings. It is considered to be astronomical calendar as it heavily depends on astronomical data for determining the start of the day, month and year.
Lunar Calendar It is defined based on Moon and ignores the Sun. Islamic calendar is an example of lunar calendar. The lunar year consists of 12 lunar months. The lunar month is defined as the time between two successive New Moons or Full Moons and is also known as synodic month. A lunar month is approximately equal to As a result the lunar year is not in sync with the solar year and both are nearly synchronized every 33 years.
This can be understood better by looking into the way the Islamic month Ramadan keeps drifting away in the solar calendar. The lunar month consists of 30 lunar days. The lunar day is considered to be the time taken by Moon to traverse 12 degrees longitudinal distance away from Sun and at the end of the 30th lunar day Moon completes degrees 12 x 30 and reaches the same phase with respect to the Sun.
The drawbacks and limitations of the Hindu solar calendar are applicable to this calendar also.
oxcocenlibo.gq Another drawback with lunar calendar is that it is out of sync with the seasons and does not preserve the knowledge of seasons. Lunisolar Calendar It is similar to lunar calendar in terms of defining the year, month and day but in addition it defines intercalary month also known as adhikamasa used to synchronize the calendar to solar calendar. Chinese calendar is another example of Lunisolar calendar. The lunar year, lunar month and lunar day for the Lunisolar calendar is defined to be same as the lunar calendar.
The only difference is that the lunar year will have 13 lunar months for some years and 12 lunar months for some years. As explained earlier lunar year constitutes days which is 11 days short of a solar year and over a period of 3 years the difference accumulates to 33 days which is more than a month. Hence an intercalary month of 30 days is added after 3 years which bring the calendar as close as 3 days to solar calendar. But the difference of 33 days being a non multiple of 30 days adding intercalary months exactly after every 3 years will not solve the problem as the balance 3 days will make the calendar out of sync again.
The addition of intercalary month needs to follow the 19 year Metonic cycle wherein 19 solar years is almost equal to lunar synodic months with few hours difference as shown below 19 x Without intercalary months the 19 year solar cycle will have lunar months and by adding 7 intercalary months in a 19 year Metonic cycle the lunisolar calendar is synchronized to solar calendar. By following the principle of Metonic cycle the intercalary months will be added after either 35 months or 34 months or 28 months. The Lunisolar calendar preserves the seasons with the help of intercalary months whereas it does not preserve the knowledge of equinoxes and need to take help of tropical zodiac or tropical calendar.
The lunar day in Hindu lunisolar calendar starts with sunrise and hence the length of the day is not uniform across the days. The lunar day is also known as Tithi and the day is called with the name of Tithi which appears at the time of sunrise. The advantages, drawbacks and limitations of Hindu solar calendar are applicable to this calendar also. The current Hindu calendars known as Panchanga have integrated the Gregorian calendar into them by effectively mapping the lunar database to the Gregorian calendar.
Hence it has become easy to operate with Panchanga in day to day activities. While his interest in Astrology was activated by going through books of Dr. Raman, his formal learning of the subject was from Prof. V Seshadrinatha Sastri, a renowned scholar of Astrology and Ayurveda. Neelakantan has been a regular contributor to The Astrological eMagazine.
His multi faceted talent also includes proficiency in Vedic chants. In this dissertation we will try to understand the inner significance of certain planetary combinations.
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Combinations come under special rules of Astrology and as such can run counter to general rules. For instance Hydrogen is inflammable; so is Oxygen: but combination of Hydrogen and oxygen gives rise to Water which puts out fire. So we cannot conclude merely on properties of Hydrogen and Oxygen, that the resultant compound which is obtained by their fusion will be similar in nature to their individual properties. Yogas are not just combinations of planets. Their classification is not merely restricted to planetary inter relationship - it can also involve houses.
Yogas fall under several categories; some of them are:. In this article we will try to focus our attention on a few of these yogas and try to assimilate their significance. They occur when the planets giving rise to this yoga occupy their own house or are in exaltation and in a quadrant from Ascendant.
Some scholars opine that instead of reckoning these yogas from Ascendant, they could be reckoned from the Moon, as well. These yogas are mentioned in Table 1. Name of the Yoga. Ruchaka Yoga This yoga is formed on account of the presence of Mars in a quadrant from Ascendant, while occupying Aries, Scorpio or Capricorn. For real effects of the yoga to fructify, the planet must be strong.
According to dr. Emphasis is laid on the word balishta so that if a planet is weak by debilitation, association or aspect the yoga does not operate in its real sense, though nominally it may exist. Here importance is attached to the de facto rather than de jure presence of this yoga ref: Important Combinations. Bhadra Yoga Bhadra Yoga is formed on account of the presence of Mercury in a quadrant from ascendant, while occupying Gemini or Virgo. Please note that Mercury is the only planet whose exaltation sign also happens to be its own house. Hamsa yoga is formed on account of the pressure of Jupiter in a quadrant from Ascendant while occupying Sagittarius, Pisces or Cancer.
For effects of this yoga to occur in full, Mercury should be unaspected and alone. Mercury in conjunction with a malefic becomes a malefic. This yoga can occur only for persons born in common signs. So care is required in interpretation. If lagna falls in Pisces and Mercury is in Gemini, then also this yoga will occur. But simultaneously the dictum "Karako Bhava Nasaya" will get involved. This means that a Karaka in Bhava spoils the Bhava. I wish to repeat what I said earlier- care is required in interpretation.
While Hamsa Yoga is a spiritual yoga per excellence, Malavya Yoga is a yoga for materialism and for success in obtaining worldly pleasures and happiness. A person with this yoga is adept in getting optimum pleasure out of sensual pursuits. Concluding, an indepth study of the peculiarities of the Pancha Maha Purusha Yogas would reveal the innate qualities of the planets which give rise to these yogas.
For anyone to make a mark in life or to reach a position of honour or achieve success or distinction in their field of activity, it is necessary to be blessed with at least one of the five Mahapurusha Yogas in the birth Chart. He has been rendering astrological counseling for two and half decades. Soundar Rajan's training has been under Pandit Asuri Venkatachary.
Mandi, an upagraha satellite , attached to Saturn also known as the son of Saturn is an invisible, rather a hypothetical point. Its position is mathematically ascertained for predictive purposes. When the length of day and night is 30 ghatikas each 60 ghatikas make 24 hours , the position of Mandi on weekdays, counting from Sunday onwards, is at the end of ghatikas 26, 22,18,14,10,6, and2 during daytime, and during night time, at the end of 10, 6, 2, 26, 22, 18, and 14 ghatikas respectively. The following formula helps in working out the position of Mandi.
Mandi is very important in judging the correctness of an ascendant, which should conform to any of the following positions, especially if Moon is not strong in the natal chart: 1. Ascendant will be trine to the lord of the house occupied by Mandi. Good for health 12th House 11 Miserable. In Chart 3, Mandi is placed in 11th house. The lady has no elder sibilings. Mandi in the 11th can cause an elder sibling to die early. Ascendant will be trine to the lord of the house occupied by the same - in Navamsa. Mandi is a dreaded malefic, but it gives good results in the 6th and 11th houses. Its association with a planet makes the planet inauspicious.
If the lord of the house occupied by Mandi is in a cardinal or a trine house with reference to ascendant, it bestows plenty of riches and fame on the individual. In chart 4, Mandi is in Aridra constellation and Ketu in Swati which is trine to Mandi and 5th house. Progeny was affected twice during Rahu bukthi. In Chart 2 too, Mandi is in 3r house and the native has has no younger siblings. Mandi is in the constellation of Jupiter, Vishaka. He suddenly collapsed during Rahu dasa Jupiter bukthi and Mercury antara. Rahu in pitrusthana is in 9th place while bukthinatha Jupiter is in debilitation with Mercury antara dasa lord in the same constellation of Mandi.
Mandi is in the constellation of Jupiter star visakha both on birth and death chart. Venus I Mercuiy. Mandi is in the constellation of Saturn, Pushya. At the time of death, the Moon dasa was running, which is in the constellation of Pushya Vakya Panchangam with bhukthi and antardasa lord Saturn also in Pushya. Saturn is 8th lord too. Mars Ketu Jupiter Venus. The native suddenly collapsed in Mercury Dasa and Moon Bukthi. Dasa lord Mercury is in the constellation of Saturn, Pushya. Bhukthi lord Moon is in the house of Saturn, in his own constellation, Pushya.
Mars crossed Aridra constellation with the result much mental suffering affected the Manmohan Singh Government. Mercury 8th lord and Saturn crosses the constellation of Rahu, Swati, which trines to Mandi's constellation during October indicating imbalance to the Central Government. The eighth can be associated with "mental sufferings and psychological afflictions. When malefic planets cross Mandi's constellation and its trines, negative results occur. When the dasa, bhukthi and antara dasa lords connect with Mandi and its constellation, fatal results can happen. Generaly, propitiation suggested is to visit Tiruvalangadu Easwaran Temple that houses Mandeeswarar - an hour's drive from Kanchipuram.
Z"VHoroscopes remain the most controversial of all in the eyes of modern science. Modern science has quite valid grounds to maintain its skepticism on the underlying principles and mechanism of horoscopes. But the ancient records of horoscopes have been under careful scrutiny and study by modern researchers to understand the evolution of conceptions like Zodiac and the development of observational and mathematical astronomy.
Two publications of great importance in this regard are: Babylonian Horoscopes by Rochberg Francesca In the form of horoscopes we have a strange bundle of data from Babylon - a bunch of nearly 25 horoscopes obtained on cuneiform tablets, the salient features of this class of data may be summarized as follows:1 1. Chronologically the extant cuneiform horoscope texts range from BC to 69 BC. All the texts contain astronomical data related to birth of individuals and not the astrological class of contents.
The horoscope texts form a very small corpus when compared to the huge corpus of other Babylonian astronomical texts. As noted by Rochberg, 'Babylonian zodiac was at all times sidereaV and in the words of Rochberg, the relation between the Babylonian and Modern longitudes finds the following description: "To compare modern computed longitudes against those in a Babylonian source it is helpful to correct for a systematic deviation in values that results from the different methods of counting longitudes, i. This systematic deviation represents the effect of precession upon the sidereally normed Babylonian zodiac" 5.
Accordingly for the year - i. Data of about Greek Horoscopes belonging to the first five centuries of AD is available in the work and the notable aspects of this data are: 6. A unique zodiac cannot be identified in certain data like the zodiacal representation over Nimrud Daghin view of the different norms of sidereal and tropical used in erecting the horoscopes. Babylonian sidereal zodiac is apparent in certain cases while in others the tropical zodiac of Ptolemy is adopted.
Simultaneous existence of the sidereal and tropical norms despite the role of precession point towards a specific rationale underlying the sidereal norm i.
We have many remarkable examples that attest the existence of a fixed zodiac despite the popularity of Ptolemy and Almajest that placed the zero at vernal equinox. Detailed data and dating of the texts are available in the works of Rochberg and A. The following features of the work of Rochberg invites our attention:. No specific star or other identity is not available for the zero point as described above in the sky - west of vernal equinox by a few degrees. Obviously the guidance in fixing the zero would have been some astronomical phenomena like the occurrence of a series of lunar phases.
Errors of 1 or 2 degrees in many cases when the Babylonian longitudes are compared with modern values as per the above sidereal norm. The following data is typical:. So far no explanation has become available for the rationale or the method by which the zero point was fixed except for the possibility of the Muladhara Cakra pointed out by the present author.
Above error can be ascribed to the specific measurement method employed by the Babylonian astronomer priests. Babylonian Calendar and Zero Point When looking at the features of the Babylonian Calendar what strikes our attention most is the year Uruk scheme. Such a calendar could have given guidance for the fixing of the zero point also. For example, in the above cases of texts 5 and 9 the zero point could have been based on a 19 year scheme such as:. Sidereal Muladhara values will be ' andll'. Going back in time we can see on 18 March - , UT the new moon coinciding with the zero point at a tropical A of , and sidereal at 0o45'.
First visibility of the crescent would have been on 19 March with the sun nearly at 2 and therefore the reliance on the luni solar phenomena to fix the zero point could have caused the observed departure of the longitudes from the Babylonian sidereal norm. True Zero Point Calendar Scheme The original calendar scheme that guided the astronomerpriests in configuring the zero point may be identified as beginning with the new moon of 16thMarch - , UT, having the sun and moon at o30' - sidereal value '.
On 17th March the beginning of the calendar with the first crescent visibility had Sun very nearly over the zero point. In - the last quarter of moon would have coincided the solar transit over the sidereal zero point while for - , the full moon and had the first quarter and new moon recurs for - Greek Horoscope Data In the case of the Greek horoscopes, the different norms employed makes identification of general features and derivation of a precise formulae for 8A very difficult. But still the following factors are quite relevant in to the context of our discussions on the ancient sidereal zodiac:.
Horoscopes from literary sources like Anthology of Vettius Valens greatly outnumber those from original papyri. Vettius Valens examples range from AD 37 to and are quoted with the specific purpose of discussing certain astrological doctrines. Later literary sources cover a period up to AD Deviation 8A between the ancient and modern longitudes remains essentially constant particularly this is evident in the case of slow and regular motion of the sun and the ascending lunar node within statistical limits except for the errors and inaccuracies that have crept in.
Neugebauer has noted distinct trends in respect of 8A of later texts and those of Vettius Valens - 8As of later horoscopes stand in marked contrast to the 8 A from the solar longitudes of Vettius Valens: whereas the later literary horoscopes show a practically constant deviation, the deviations in the texts from Vettius Valens decrease continually at a rate corresponding to precession. This shows that the longitudes in Vettius Valens are sidereal longitudes whereas the later authors operate with tropical longitudes, obviously following the norm adopted by Ptolemy and Theon.
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Actually, however, we find values 1 or 2 smaller. Neugebauer has presented an explanation, which is not satisfactory to him self. To illustrate the situation a horoscope of the fifth century can be considered: No. Planetary data of the text are: Preceding Full Moon: 27 October , ZT at ' which according to the text was at 33o07' for seasonal 6h20m in day - time of opposition in error by nearly 4 hours. Of course it matches well mathematically and as per Almajest but it perfectly matches another possibility of a sidereal zodiac with precession correction of 50" per year and whose zero coincided vernal equinox in AD If Ptolemy had his stellar longitudes determined in AD , it is possible that he had as the sidereal zero epoch of vernal point in AD subject to the inaccuracies in ancient measurement for fixing the clima.
For this time and the said locality, that is Alexandria, we compute accurately the positions of the stars and the centers and put them without change because thus it seems right to the godly Ptolemaios The reason for this discrepancy may be the tables used for computing the horoscopes - the way in which the sidereal zero point was identified in ancient times. As discussed above in the case of Babylonian horoscopes, the guidance must have been from a Calendar scheme and an earlier norm of the sidereal zodiac based on - for example - the new moon of 16th March AD, UThad the first visibility and the year beginning on 42 JANUARY Horoscope was based on a wrong year beginning cum lunation identified as marking the zero point.
It is a well-known fact that the Greek Horoscopes and sidereal zodiac that we see are subscribed from Babylon and therefore the rationale of the zero point might have undergone dilution during the course of such transfer of knowledge. Neugebauer has in the discussions on the Lion relief ofNimrud Dagh summarized the different norms for Zodiac that prevailed in the first century BC: a Constellation Leo from Cancer 15 to Leo 25 considered from vernal point b Scheme of Eudoxus according to which Leo is from Cancer 15 to Leo 15 from vernal equinox norm for cardinal points.
But in continuation of such an assessment, Neugebauer has made the following observations: a We do not know what chronological relation existed between these two norms i. Neugebauer, Rochberg and Huber as already pointed out that precession was the reason behind the difference between 1. In 'Greek Horoscopes' while discussing the Vettius Valens, Neugebauer himself explains the decreasing 8A as the consequence of precession.
This in turn brings to light a chronological relation - Eudoxus scheme of 15 equinoxes pointing to an antiquity of BC for the zodiac. Priestly Use of the Sidereal Zodiac The last few centuries of researches into the origins of science and astronomy have shown little concern into the purpose served by astronomy for the astronomer-priests of Babylon and also for those who pursued astronomy for the religious purposes.
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